Extrasystole atrial (EP): is one of the options for heart failure, characterized by extraordinary contractions of the heart, caused by the formation of excitatory foci in the atria. The lesion extends to the upper part of the heart and the inferior to the ventricles.
Deviations in the work of the atria, is the most frequent concomitant diagnosis. In most of the cases, the appearance of this pathology is observed in people older than 50 years.
This pathology is not always a factor that indicates organic damage in the heart muscle.
PE is recorded not only in patients with cardiac pathologies, but also in healthy people. In the latter, premature atrial beats can occur in the context of stress, intense physical exertion, as well as a large amount of caffeine consumed.
When atrial beats occur, a person feels a push of strong character, in the region of the heart, there is also a subsidence of the heart rate and shortness of breath.
How is atrial arrhythmia classified?
For a more convenient diagnosis and treatment, atrial premature beats are divided into three types, according to the number of contractions:
- Disposable abbreviations (simple)
- Paired Extrasystoles
- Triplets (three cuts followed out of turn). They also stand out as an unstable tachycardia.
Unscheduled contractions (extrasystoles), which appear with a certain cyclical nature, are called alorithmia.
Among its subclasses, the following are distinguished:
- A failure in which each unplanned heartbeat follows, after each normality, is called bigeminy
- Trigeminia Observed with pathological impulses for every third contraction.
- When the sequence of each quarter pulse is called quadrigemin.
There is also a division into groups and by place of origin of the vegetables, including:
- Monotopic: impulses occur in the same place.
- Polytopes – the appearance of unplanned impulses from different places.
Auricular arrhythmia separated and in degrees, highlighting:
A quantitative indicator of the occurrence of unplanned reductions per hour allows us to subdivide the categories into stages:
- The first stage. There are no more than 30 unscheduled cuts per hour.
- Second stage More than 30 extrasystoles are registered per hour.
- With a large number of unexpected impulses, they are considered already matched extrasystoles and impulses from different places (polytopic).
ECG in atrial arrhythmia
What causes atrial premature beats?
The progression of atrial arrhythmia occurs according to the factors that influence the appearance of the pathology. These may include chronic diseases and pathologies, and other factors that adversely affect the heart.
The diseases include heart diseases, since they predominate in the appearance of atrial beats:
- Replacement of heart cells with scar tissue (cardiosclerosis)
- Heart damage caused by poor blood flow or thrombosis of the heart vessels (infarction)
- Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
- Congenital and acquired heart diseases.
- Different types of angina.
- When violations of protein metabolism (amyloidosis).
- Sarcoidosis (chronic inflammatory disease that affects many organs)
- and other pathologies.
In certain cases, atrial premature beats appear after undergoing cardiac surgery.
Some functional factors cause the appearance of beats:
- Drink alcohol
- Taking drugs
- States of stress, psychological abnormalities, overloads.
- Frequent use of caffeine, energy drinks, strong tea and spicy foods
- During transport of the child, as well as during periods of menstruation.
- Vegetative dystonia
- Potassium deficiency
- Low hemoglobin
Certain types of drugs, when used, cause atrial arrhythmia:
- Oral contraceptives
In the case of unknown causes of atrial beats, it is called idiopathic (I).
Middle-aged people should control the consumption of caffeine and cigarettes per day, as well as reduce the stress component. This will help with a greater chance of preventing the occurrence of atrial beats.
How is the atrial extrasystole manifested?
The symptoms of atrial arrhythmia are not felt. People often do not pay attention or do not suspect irregularities in the heartbeat.
This leads to complications that the atrial premature beats cause later. Individual extrasystoles are randomly detected in the electrocardiogram in many cases.
The main clinical picture is studied according to the patient’s complaints and the symptoms of heart malfunction.
The main signs that indicate the atrial extrasystole are:
- The fear of death. It occurs due to the excitement of the nervous system, triggered by a malfunction of the heart rate.
- Feeling of thrust in the heart.
Most symptoms are expressed alone and not by a complex, so if one is found, a doctor should be consulted.
Shortness of breath, shortness of breath
To distinguish atrial from ventricular arrhythmia, only a qualified physician can do it, according to the results of an electrocardiogram. The independent use of drugs against arrhythmias, can only lead to serious burdens, and even death.
What are the symptoms in children?
In the case of a defeat of the child, the atrial premature beats are not accompanied by complaints, the diagnosis of the disease occurs during the general examinations.
In childhood, the manifestation of extrasystole occurs not only in heart failure, but also in such signs:
- Short of breath
- The fear
- increased sweat
- Restless sleep
If these symptoms are detected, the emotional factors that affect the child should be reduced, as well as an adequate amount of rest.
The causes of atrial extrasystole at this age are heart failure, intestinal pathology, high physical exertion, stressful situations, etc.
Very often, PE manifests itself in respiratory diseases. But by eliminating them, the symptoms disappear and the condition returns to normal.
The easiest way to diagnose atrial premature beats is to listen to heart sounds. With such a diagnosis, listen out of the ordinary, the heartbeat, indicating atrial beats.
PE is also clearly visible on the electrocardiogram. In case a tooth other than the standard appears, it is called premature tooth of R.
In certain cases, an electrocardiogram is used according to Hotler. This study helps to see myocardial muscle activity for 24 hours.
Blood tests and a quantitative indicator of hormones can reveal the causes of the disease outside the heart.
First aid for the atrial extrasystole
If a person is affected by a factor (stress, etc.), the patient should be eliminated and reassured. In severe cases, psychotherapy is used.
At risk of atrial beating to the tachycardia, as well as with a large amount of unplanned impulses, use drugs of the antiarrhythmic category. For first aid, Bisoprolol, Propafenone can be used.
With progression to an acute degree, hospitalization and follow-up of medical workers is necessary.
How is atrial arrhythmia treated?
The main objective of therapy for this pathology is to eliminate the cause, which leads to atrial arrhythmia.
The specialist must examine the patient with special attention, since in this pathology there is already a heart disease.
With non-pharmacological treatment, eliminate causes external to the heart, which can cause atrial premature beats.
I can bring her:
- Some medicine
- Malfunction of the thyroid gland.
- Normalization of potassium in the body.
- Elimination of anemia.
Patient sedation and psychotherapy play a great role.
The auricular extrasystole therapy should consist of a set of actions:
- Adequate day regime, adequate sleep.
- Reduce the consumption of foods that contain caffeine.
- You must stop alcoholic beverages, as well as cigarettes.
- Take pills for cardiovascular problems.
- Monitor the normal state of the nervous system.
- Adequate nutrition
Preparations against arrhythmias are prescribed for a number of reasons:
With the appearance of more than 700 sudden impulses in 24 hours.
- At risk of progression of atrial fibrillation.
- In the case of severe tolerability of atrial arrhythmia.
- If the patient has had a heart attack or has heart defects
- At risk of developing atrial flutter.
For therapy in such cases, I can prescribe drugs from the group of beta blockers (Bisoprolol), as well as calcium channel blockers (Verapamil). For a quick sedation in the hospital you can apply Kordaron.
Amiodarone is a very effective drug, since in addition to its antiarrhythmic properties, it prevents atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation.
Surgery is radiofrequency ablation (reduction). And it is recommended in cases in which the patient is diagnosed with flutter or atrial fibrillation.
In addition, surgery is recommended for heart failure.
Do I need a rehabilitation course?
After removal of the atrial arrhythmia, no time is required for rehabilitation. This happens because the special deviations in the functioning of the heart are not altered.
When you use anti-arrhythmia medications, you must discard them constantly so as not to cause burdens and side effects.
How to prevent the appearance of PD?
In the first place, it is necessary to reject the use of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes and also the use of drugs.
Bad habits at most cause the appearance of a wide spectrum of diseases. You should also eliminate the stress of life to the fullest and protect yourself from serious mental disorders.
Those who have undergone cardiac surgery, or myocardial infarction, should always record their blood pressure. People with congenital defects should be constantly monitored by a cardiologist, who administers an ECG.
What forecasts do doctors give?
In this case, the prediction depends on the number of sudden impulses per day and the reasons that influenced the appearance of atrial beats. In most cases, in the absence of complications from other organs, the prognosis is favorable.
The constant repetition of multiple sudden impulses can cause loads in the form of scar formation in the atria (fibrillation) and its flutter.
These rhythm disorders can have more serious consequences. Also one of the serious complications of atrial beats is supraventricular tachycardia.
Multiple sudden impulses in different places (polytopic) lead to the most dangerous complications. They suppose a failure in the sanguineous circulation, as well as the thrombosis of the vessels of the heart.
In most cases, with early detection, the course of the disease occurs without complications. But, by allowing severe forms, can inherit more serious pathologies of organs.
Also, they should not be treated on their own.
Reckless medication can also have serious consequences. Consult a qualified doctor.
Do not self-medicate and be healthy!