Cardiovascular insufficiency (CAS) is a condition of the body in which the heart does not fulfill its functions.
The pumping work takes place in slow motion, the normal circulation of the blood is damaged, all the internal organs are worse equipped with oxygen.
Cardiological diseases usually contribute to the onset of heart failure.
By not coping with the burdens, the heart muscle begins to thicken and grow in size. Read about common pathologies because the heart hurts can be found in this article.
For some time, this allows you to maintain the body, but gradually the oxygen metabolism is altered, the myocardial tissues change, the work of the heart muscle comes out of a normal rhythm.
This state can develop quickly (in a couple of hours) or over a long period of time (several years).
Social and diastolic heart failure.
Causes of the disease
The acute form of cardiovascular insufficiency manifests itself in a short period of time. The development of the pathology is rapid: from several minutes to several days.
The main reasons are the following:
- Myocardial infarction
- Hypertensive crisis
- Sharp Jade
- Pulmonary thrombosis
- Ischemic heart muscle disease.
With the rapid development of inadequacy, a person suddenly becomes ill. This dangerous condition, without first aid and more hospitalization, is fatal.
According to statistics, the pathology most frequently observed in the left ventricle.
The work to push the blood is delayed here, during this period of time the right ventricle conducts the blood in a small circle. This condition contributes to the development of pulmonary edema.
Chronic cardiovascular failure develops over several years. The main factors include: hypertension (constant high pressure), atrial fibrillation, congenital heart defects, genetic predisposition.
The pathology is caused by other cardiological and vascular diseases.
The following factors increase the risk of developing cardiovascular failure:
- Physical and psycho-emotional stress.
- Infectious and respiratory diseases.
- Take medications that increase blood pressure or inhibit fluids in the body.
- Non-compliance with the prescription of physicians for the treatment of chronic cardiovascular insufficiency.
These are reversible factors, with their elimination, the risks of developing the disease are significantly reduced.
Cardiovascular failure differs in the rate at which symptoms appear. On the basis of this factor, they emit an acute and chronic disease.
The acute form develops in several scenarios:
- Pathology of the right ventricle of the heart.
- In the left mind, damage to the left ventricle or left atrium is possible.
With chronic deficiency in cardiology, the following classification is adopted (according to Vasilenko-Strazhesko):
Signs of failure
There are common symptoms, they are characteristic of problems with both circles of blood circulation (large and small):
- The appearance of shortness of breath, spasmodic breathing and cough.
- Painful sensations in the chest, in the region of the heart muscle.
- Increased fatigue and general weakness at any time of the day.
- Pain in other organs (liver), which is associated with lack of oxygen in tissues
- The fingers of the hands and feet, the hands, the lips become pale, cool and acquire a bluish tinge.
In the presence of disturbing signs of insufficiency, it is necessary to call the ambulance. The delay or negligence leads to the progression of the attack and death.
Symptoms and treatment depend on the form of cardiovascular insufficiency and the part of the affected heart muscle (left or right).
With left ventricular The form of cardiovascular insufficiency in a person increases the pulse, however, there is a low blood pressure.
Your skin becomes pale, there is difficulty breathing and breathing becomes difficult, sweat appears on the forehead and wheezing is heard from the lungs during breathing. The foam can be released from the mouth, sometimes with blood, the patient feels a lot of pain and freezes in one position.
Signs of heart failure
The following signs are characteristic of the right ventricular form of the SSN:
- Swelling throughout the body.
- Enlarged liver
- Severe chest pain
- Blue fingers, nose and ears.
- Veins grow on the patient’s neck.
- The fluid is collected in the abdominal cavity.
In cases of CLS, patients are sent to the hospital, where they relieve symptoms and eliminate the threat to life if necessary, the patient is placed in intensive care. Then the cause of the disease results, and the treatment is prescribed.
The therapy is carried out with the following pharmacological agents:
- Diuretics – Diuretic drugs that improve the work of the kidneys. It contributes to the elimination of excess fluid from the body and the elimination of edema. The funds include: “Indapamide”, “Furosemide”, “Torasemide”
- ACE inhibitors – pressure reducing agents. Presented by the following medications: “Captopril”, “Ramipril”, “Trandolapril”.
- Angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists – A group of advanced drugs aimed at antihypertensive effects. The main drugs: Valsartan, Lozartan, Candesartan.
In addition, patients are prescribed magnesium and potassium preparations, vasodilators, medications that support the pumping function of the heart, as prescribed by the doctor, other medications are prescribed to support the normal cardiovascular condition.
In parallel with traditional therapy, doctors adjust the patient’s lifestyle. It is necessary to observe the alternation of work with rest, to avoid excessive physical and psycho-emotional overloads, to eliminate all bad habits: alcohol and smoking.
The patient should avoid respiratory infections and regularly do a series of physiotherapy exercises.
Diet plays an important role: it is necessary to significantly reduce salt in the diet (sometimes it is completely eliminated), to avoid fried, fatty and refined foods. The basis of the diet: vegetables, fruits, dairy products.
In extreme cases, with the ineffectiveness of pharmacotherapy, doctors perform surgery:
- Bypass is the most popular treatment method, blood flow is directed by surgeons to avoid the damaged vessel.
- Surgery to replace or repair heart valves.
- Dora operation: performed in patients after a left ventricular myocardial infarction. Surgeons remove myocardial aneurysm (dead tissue)
- Heart transplant is a rare type of operation, it is used when there are no other possibilities to save the patient’s life.
First aid for cardiovascular insufficiency
First aid for CLS is immediately, where there was an attack, if there were disturbing symptoms:
- Chest pain
- Short of breath
- Increase in pulse
- Blue fingers, auricles or nose.
- Hreath breath.
The main objective is to redistribute blood throughout the body to reduce the load on the myocardium.
At the first signs of cardiovascular insufficiency, the following actions should be taken:
- Call an ambulance immediately.
- Help the patient to sit, if possible, lower hands and feet in a bowl of hot water. Take off your shy clothes, unbutton your shirt. Next, you must provide access to fresh air, for this open the windows and doors of the house.
- Measure the pressure of your heart. If the systolic index is below 90 millimeters of mercury, then the patient receives a tablet of nitroglycerin (absorbed under the tongue) and a diuretic medication (a dose of Lasix). Nitroglycerin can be absorbed every 5 to 10 minutes, until it becomes easier, but no more than 4 tablets.
- After fifteen minutes, put a harness on one leg, at the level of the thigh, move it every twenty or forty minutes.
If a person gets worse after the measures taken, his breathing has stopped, his heart has stopped, then resuscitation actions should be performed: perform an artificial respiration with an indirect cardiac muscle massage.
Artificial respiration with indirect cardiac muscle massage.
What is CLS in children?
Most of the time, cardiovascular failure is recorded in the elderly, although the pathology is becoming younger now, often affecting the middle-aged population. Blood circulation can be affected in children, including newborns.
Heart failure can cause:
- Heart defects or myocarditis of congenital nature,
- Severe injuries
- Connective tissue diseases.
The symptoms of the disease are similar to those of the adult clinic, depending on the part of the affected heart. Children look pale and constantly tired, they avoid loud and active games, they often lie.
After physical exertion, they experience difficulty breathing, and gradually appear during rest.
Once you have found the first symptoms of pathology in children, you should contact your local pediatrician, he will write a reference for an examination of the heart muscle. For any violation, immediate treatment begins.
Cardiovascular failure is not an independent disease. This is a manifestation of complications in the background of many cardiological diseases. Failure never happens without treatment.
At the first sign, you must go to the doctor. When all the cardiologist’s instructions are met, the prognosis for the treatment is favorable.
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