Neutrophils, what is it?
Neutrophils, or neutrophil leukocytes, the most numerous subspecies of white blood cells: leukocytes. Being present in the blood, neutrophils perform one of the most important functions: protect the body from the effects of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other harmful agents.
Neutrophils detect the pathogen, destroy it and then die themselves.
The level of neutrophils in the blood is determined by a comprehensive clinical analysis, which contains information on all types of neutrophils.
Maturation and classification of neutrophils.
The life cycle of neutrophils consists of the formation and maturation in the red bone marrow. Having passed all the stages of maturity, the neutrophils penetrate through the walls of the capillaries to the blood, where they remain for 8 to 48 hours. Then, mature neutrophils enter the tissues of the body, providing protection against exposure to pathogens.
The process of cell destruction takes place in tissues.
What are neutrophils?
Until full maturity, neutrophils go through 6 stages, according to which, the cells are classified into:
- Band cores
Stages of neutrophil development.
All cellular forms, except segmented ones, are considered functionally immature neutrophils.
Function of neutrophils
When pathogenic bacteria or other harmful substances enter the body, neutrophils absorb them, neutralize (phagocytose) and then die.
Enzymes that are released during the death of neutrophils soften nearby tissues, which causes the formation of pus in inflammation, which consists of the destruction of white blood cells, damaged cells of organs and tissues, pathogenic microorganisms and inflammatory exudate.
What is the maintenance rate?
The amount of neutrophil content is measured in absolute units contained in 1 liter of blood and the percentage of the total number of white cells (leukocytes).
In the study of blood with a developed leukocyte formula, determine the proportion of neutrophil types
A decrease in the level of neutrophils is called neutropenia (agranulocytosis), an increase called neutrophilia (neutrophilia).
To determine the type of neutropenia and neutrophilia using data reference values of the proportion of cell types.
What do the changes in the analysis say?
Increase in the level of neutrophils.
The increase in the level of neutrophils in the blood is called neutrophilia (neutrophilia).
The abnormality of segmented neutrophils can indicate the following pathologies and conditions:
- Infectious diseases
- Pathology of the lower extremities.
- Oncological diseases
- Functional disorders of the urinary system.
- Rheumatoid inflammatory diseases
- Increase in blood sugar levels.
Overcoming the norm of pungent neutrophils occurs in infectious and acute inflammatory diseases that cause an acceleration of the penetration of immature neutrophils into the bloodstream.
The number of young neutrophils above normal is a consequence of:
- Surgical and postoperative intervention.
- Holistic skin disorder
- Several injuries
- Thermal, chemical burns.
- Rheumatoid diseases
- Malignant / benign neoplasm
- Anemia (observed neutrophil polysegmentation)
- Autoimmune diseases
- Extensive blood loss
- Room temperature fluctuations
- Hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Abnormal stab neutrophils can largely be caused by excessive physical or emotional stress.
The growth of immature neutrophils is also observed when taking certain medications, such as:
- The adrenaline
- Medicines that contain the digital plant.
Stroke neutrophilia is observed during intoxication with lead, mercury or insecticides.
The uniform growth of stab and segmented neutrophils is observed with:
- Localized purulent inflammations. (appendicitis, upper respiratory tract infections, tonsillitis, acute pyelonephritis, adnexitis, etc.)
- Generalized purulent inflammations. (peritonitis, scarlet fever, sepsis, etc.)
- Necrotic processes (stroke, gangrene, heart attacks, etc.)
- Disintegration of malignant neoplasms
- Bacteria toxins that enter the body., without infection by the bacteria themselves (example: ingestion of botulinum toxin formed during the death of the bacteria themselves).
Neutrophilia is classified by severity:
Neutrophilia is asymptomatic and most of the time it is detected by chance.
Low neutrophil level
A condition in which the number of neutrophils in the blood is less than normal is called neutropenia or agranulocytosis.
The classification of neutropenia is based on the course of the pathology:
- Chronic neutropenia, that lasts more than 1 month
- Acute neutropenia, Developing from several hours to several days.
The change of neutrophils to the left is divided into degrees:
- Easy – 1-1.5 x 10 9 / l
- Average – 0.5-1 x 10 9 / l
- Heavy – Less than 0.5 x 10 9 / l
The following types of agranulocytosis are distinguished:
- Primary, What is observed more frequently in patients from 6 to 18 months of age. Primary agranulocytosis is characterized by an asymptomatic course. Sometimes pain of different localization, cough syndrome, inflammation of the gingival tissues, gingival bleeding
- High school, whose development is observed mainly in adults and is associated with postponed autoimmune pathologies.
- Absolute, develop with whooping cough, sepsis, typhoid fever, acute leukemia, infectious mononucleosis
- Relative, occurs in patients under 12 years and is explained by the physiological characteristics of a person
- Cyclic, It is characterized by the periodic development of fungal or bacterial diseases, the manifestation of symptoms with a frequency of 4-5 days every 3 weeks. The clinical manifestations of this form of the disease are migraine, fever, inflammation of the small joints, sore throat, tonsils.
- Autoimmune, in which a decrease in the level of neutrophils is associated with the intake of certain medications. It is often found in patients with dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diseases.
The reduction of the level of cells in the blood is caused by taking analginum, anti-tuberculosis drugs, immunosuppressants, cytostatic drugs. In addition, this type of pathology is found with prolonged antibacterial therapy with drugs from the penicillin group.
- Febrile, What is the most dangerous form of the disease. The condition is characterized by a sudden and rapid decrease in the level of neutrophils at critical values (below 0.5 x 10 9 / l).
The development of the pathology occurs during or immediately after chemotherapy, which is used to treat cancer. Febrile agranulocytosis indicates the presence of infection in the body, whose timely detection is often impossible.
A small amount of neutrophils in the blood leads to the rapid spread of the infection in the body, which often leads to death. It is characterized by a strong increase in temperature to subfebrile marks, tachycardia, hypotension, weakness and profuse sweating.
The reasons for the decrease in the level of neutrophils are:
- The infections
- Inflammatory processes
- Taking some medications
- Pathological processes in the spinal cord.
- Lack of vitamins
- The Heritage
Symptoms of neutropenia include:
- Febrile and subfebrile temperature
- Mucosal ulceration
- Sinusitis, sinusitis, rhinitis
Changes in the leukocyte formula, including changes in the level of neutrophils, almost always indicate the presence of a disease in the body. When identifying any neutrophilic change in the blood test, it is important to undergo a detailed examination and the necessary treatment.
When abnormal neutrophils in the blood are very important as soon as possible to identify the cause of the violations.
For diagnosis you can use:
- X-ray examination of the thorax.
- X-ray examination of ENT organs
- Urine analysis
- Blood test for HIV
- Puncture of the bone marrow.
The treatment of neutropenia and neutrophilia is mainly directed at the treatment of the underlying disease that caused a violation of the level of neutrophils in the blood.
Video: Decoding blood tests