Supraventricular tachycardia (NT) is one of the varieties of deviations in heart rhythm, characterized by a sudden increase in the number of contractions of the heart muscle, but maintaining its correct rhythm.
Progress if there is an additional lesion in the atrium, which emits electrical impulses, or in the heart appear additional pathways of nervous excitement, in addition to an atrioventricular pathway.
In some cases, structural damage to the heart or abnormalities in the functional capacities of the left ventricle may cause supraventricular tachycardia. NT damage can cause death, which is why it is considered a life-threatening condition.
persistent supraventricular tachycardia
episode of “trotting” supraventricular tachycardia
Death occurs when the heart rate fails, as a result of which the heart muscle wears out quickly.
According to statistics, supraventricular tachycardia is recorded in 0.3 percent of the population, mainly in women. While ventricular tachycardia is more commonly diagnosed in men.
The location of the lesion, exclusively in the atria, is recorded in fifteen percent of cases, and the lesion is atrioventricular, in eighty-five percent of cases.
The majority of affected people are elderly (after 60 years of age), but the percentage of morbidity among young people is also present.
How is the defeat of the NT?
The progression of supraventricular tachycardia occurs if one of the two mechanisms for the occurrence of additional impulses occurs.
One of them is the appearance of additional foci that emit nerve impulses. This leads to the fact that, in addition to the electrical excitations transmitted by the sinus node, the same impulses emit pathological foci in the atria.
As a result, the number of heartbeats increases, which violates the healthy rhythm of the heartbeat, causing supraventricular tachycardia, also called paroxysmal or supraventricular.
In the second case, impulses are emitted only by the sinus node. The increase in heart rate occurs because obstacles arise in the path of an impulse, which leads to re-excitation.
These obstacles can inflame or heal the heart tissue, the formation of tumors and other structural disorders of a healthy heart.
In most cases, after the mechanisms described above, supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia progresses.
The main difference between them is that when the supraventricular deviations are located in the atrium or in the tissues of the conduction impulses, and in the case of the ventricles, directly within the ventricles.
What triggers the appearance of NT?
Certain factors can cause an increase in heart beats (up to 250 beats in 60 seconds), with a concomitant feeling of fear.
In addition, in young people, it is associated more with functional anomalies that cause a rupture of the nervous system (nervous tension, experiences, etc.) and in the elderly, it progresses, in many cases, when exposed to structural changes in the heart tissue.
In the predominant number of cases, supraventricular tachycardia is caused by the following factors that influence:
- Failures in the functional functioning of the heart.. It can lead to pathological conditions such as vegetovascular dystonia, as well as neuro-muscular dystonia, increased adrenaline emissions in the blood, shock situations.
- Structural deformation of cardiac tissue.. This group includes diseases in which the structural component of the heart muscle is disrupted or the normal structure of the heart is deformed. These are myocardial tissue death (heart attack), ischemic heart attacks, myocarditis and cardiomyopathy.
- Exposure to cardiac glycoside toxins. When drugs are taken in excess of the norm (Digoxin, Strofantin and others), often prescribed to patients with chronic pathologies, they cause severe tachycardia attacks, with a high mortality rate. The same effect of certain arrhythmic drugs (propafenone, etc.)
- Metabolism failure. Lack of vitamins and nutrients in their severe degree, or prolonged liver and kidney disease, followed by failure. In addition, permanent diets with poor protein intake lead to myocardial dystrophy (thinning of heart tissue)
- Constant stress. Nervous breakdowns, mental disorders and strong emotional stress can also cause functional heart disorders.
- The formation of unnecessary paths for the signal.. This pathology is congenital, but it can manifest at any age.
- Excessive concentration of cardiotropic hormones in the human body. In the case of overwork of the thyroid gland (hyperfunction), the quantitative indicator of triiodothyronine increases in the blood, and if there are tumoral formations in the adrenal glands, increases the adrenaline and noradrenaline.
- Alcohol or drugs
- ERW syndrome. With this syndrome, in the stage of formation of the fetus in the uterus, an additional conduction beam is formed.
- Pathology of other organs., such as cholecystitis, renal failure, gastric ulcer, gastritis
- Idiopathic supraventricular tachycardia. It is diagnosed in the event that the patient has not encountered any of the pathological conditions listed.
Several supraventricular rhythms.
In many cases, the occurrence of supraventricular tachycardia causes stressful effects, increased consumption of strong tea, coffee and beverages that contain large amounts of caffeine, excessive alcoholic beverages and cigarettes.
How are the symptoms?
The manifestation of supraventricular tachycardia is in the nature of seizures. They appear suddenly, teaching the rhythm of the heartbeats up to 250 beats per minute, and last from a couple of minutes to a couple of days.
In the period between attacks, the patient can feel completely healthy.
It begins with a strong push in the chest, in the region of the heart.
In the normal state, a person does not feel a contraction, and during the time of the attack feels a frequent heartbeat. The frequency of the rhythm increases and remains in a single accelerated rhythm.
Supraventricular tachycardia attacks are usually accompanied by:
- Dizziness, possible loss of consciousness.
Constriction of feeling in the heart.
- Incrise of cardiac frecuency
- Heavy breathing, noises of the head.
- Pale complexion
- Temperature increase
- Speech disorders and sensitivity.
At the end of the attack, a great relief is felt, the ease of breathing is restored, the frequent beating of the heart ends with the same thrust or a feeling of faintness in the chest.
How is the diagnosis?
On the first visit, the doctor listens to the patient’s complaints, studies the history and performs a primary examination to detect the presence of pronounced symptoms. The diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia usually does not encounter difficulties and the ECG is verified during the next attack.
When the sounds of the heart are heard and the heart rate is recorded, an increased, but rhythmic increase in contractions is observed during an attack.. Low blood pressure manifests.
In the event that the patient has supraventricular tachycardia, the following changes in the ECG are shown:
- Atrial supraventricular tachycardia. The rhythm remains correct, sinus, with a private oscillation of 140 to 200 (maximum 250) beats per minute. The P wave indicates the passage of a pulse through the atrial area from the synovial node, in front of each ventricle, with a low amplitude, and this tooth can be altered by two phases or negative
- The QRST ventricular complexes remain unchanged and do not expand
- With a tachycardia attack, from the atrioventricular junction, the P wave is negative.
ECG with tachycardia
In addition, in addition to the electrocardiogram, if other types of arrhythmias are suspected, A qualified doctor can refer to the following hardware studies:
- Coronography – Exam, with the help of which evaluate the state of the arteries of the heart. This type of diagnosis is more accurate for ischemia of the heart.
- Ultrasound of the heart (ultrasound).). It allows you to visualize the state of the heart.
- Magnetic resonance (MRI) of the heart – It is a very difficult type of safe investigation. Very effective At the time of the examination, the patient is placed in a special device: tomograph.
- Samples with a load (Tredmil, Bicycle ergometry). The treadmill is a study during a load on a special treadmill. The Ergometer is a similar way to verify, but with the help of a special bicycle.
The main method to diagnose supraventricular tachycardia is an electrocardiogram.
How to provide emergency care and stop the attack?
In case of an attack of supraventricular tachycardia, it is necessary to know how to provide first aid. It is especially important to meet family members who have a family that suffers from supraventricular tachycardia.
The most effective methods to eliminate the attack are:
- Test of Ashner-Danini. It is necessary to place the patient horizontally. After that, simultaneously and with moderate force, press the affected eyeballs. Such effect on the eyeballs is only allowed up to 30 seconds. In the case of an earlier effect, the effect stops. This test is contraindicated in patients suffering from eye diseases.
- Test of Chermak-Gering. The victim is placed in a horizontal position, after which he acts on a sleeping node, which lies between the sleepy arrhythmia and the ear. Pressing no more than 30 seconds. The contraindication for the test is atherosclerosis in elderly people and in extreme stages of hypertension.
- Vomiting induced artificially.
- Clean the affected cold water
- Strong pressure in the upper part of the abdomen..
If the previous methods do not give the result of using the pharmacological treatment.
The contraction of the heart is normal and the mechanism of reentry.
Drug treatment for attacks of supraventricular tachycardia is prescribed by the attending physician. To prevent complications, do not self-medicate.
In most cases, the following medications are prescribed:
- Verapamil (intravenously). The drug effectively suppresses attacks of supraventricular tachycardia. After stopping the attack, apply the Verapamil tablets three times a day.
- Beta-blockers (Anaprilin, Visken, Esmolol, Oxprenolol). Drugs in this group are used if verapamil has not worked. All means, during the attack, are administered intravenously and then prescribed in tablets. The dose is determined by the doctor in charge individually.
- Preparations against arrhythmia (Novocinamide with glucose solution). It is injected intravenously, or directly into the muscle, in a 10% dose of 5 to 10 ml. You can also take it orally in a dose of 1 gram, for every two hours, until the end of the attack. Taking this medicine indoors is only allowed after being prescribed by a doctor, as it can cause complications
- ATP inhibitors. It is used in the form of droppers and contributes to the interruption of the pathological circulation of the electrical impulse in the heart.
- Aymalin It is very effective in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. It consists of non-toxic components, like the previous medications, and is an invaluable tool for the treatment of severe stages of arrhythmia. It is introduced very slowly in a period of 5 to 10 minutes. After stopping an attack, its shape is applied in tablets, up to 4 times a day.
- Pulse frequency The medication helps eliminate mild episodes of supraventricular tachycardia. During an attack, the patient must take two pills, after which he must take two, every 8-12 hours
- Procainamide. All an effective drug used intravenously. It is introduced very slowly with 10 percent solution.
- Trifosadenine This drug has a quick effect of relieving an attack. He also entered quickly (1-2 seconds). If the effect does not occur within three minutes, you must enter a double dose. In the first few minutes, headaches and fits of cough may occur, but they are normal and can be eliminated by themselves.
With the defeat of a patient with a supraventricular tachycardia attack, means are used to relieve it as soon as possible, and then to maintain heart contractions and prevent relapse, regular pills are prescribed.
Each individual attack of supraventricular tachycardia requires individual treatment. That is why one should not participate in self-treatment, but use drugs only after the prescribing physician prescribes them.
Atrial fibrillation and flutter.
In the severe form of supraventricular tachycardia, and not in the perception by the body of pharmacological treatment, surgical intervention is used. During the operation, the additional sources that emit impulses are deformed, which restores the normal rhythm of the contractions of the heart.
Before surgery, electrocardiogram measurements are made from electrodes that are inserted into the heart muscle. This is done to determine the injuries.
The doctors perform an operation called radiofrequency ablation, in which process they eliminate additional pathways and pulse formation zones.
The bulbs can also be destroyed by physical energy (laser, electric current therapy, low temperature effects on the body).
In rare cases, it is necessary to install a pacemaker, which automatically restores the rhythm of the heartbeat, during a tachycardia attack. You can find information about the installation and types of pacemakers at the link: https://moyakrov.info/heart/kardiostimulyator
In the majority of cases, prolonged supraventricular tachycardia, if left untreated, causes pulmonary artery thrombosis, ischemic stroke, acute heart failure, pulmonary edema, as well as unexpected death.
Severe attacks of supraventricular tachycardia require immediate hospitalization and more effective treatment.
To prevent the progression of paroxysmal tachycardia, the following rules must be followed:
- Remove alcohol, tobacco
- Reduce your coffee intake and all beverages that contain caffeine in minimal amounts.
- Avoid excessive physical stress.
As much as possible to eliminate stressful situations in life, psychological influences on an individual, strong emotional burdens
- The use of adequate nutrition is important for the health of the cardiovascular system. Reduce the consumption of fatty meats and fried foods, as well as confectionery. Include in the diet more fresh vegetables, fruits, dairy products, juices of natural origin, etc.
- Get rid of excess weight (if any) to prevent atherosclerosis, ischemia and normalize the level of cholesterol in the body.
- The regular use of prescription drugs.
All these actions must be observed to prevent stress on the heart muscle and nervous system, which, when upset, can cause supraventricular tachycardia.
According to statistics, the prognosis for supraventricular tachycardia is more favorable than for the ventricular tachycardia. Do not exclude the risk of complications.
An unexpected death is recorded in 2 to 5 percent of patients with supraventricular tachycardia. The lower the severity of the attacks, the more favorable the prognosis.
This disease is individual and requires the consultation of a qualified physician who will select the treatment.
Self-medication can lead to complications.