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Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Blood coagulation is a function of blood plasma to restore the body after an injury. Platelet molecules can provide this property.

When there are not a lot of platelets in the blood, they can not cope with their functional responsibilities and, at a minimum, a person can lose a large amount of biological fluid that will lead to death.

It is also bad for the body and a high rate of platelets in the blood, as it can cause thrombosis of the arteries. The pathology with a high platelet index in the blood plasma leads to the disease, thrombocytosis.

Thrombocytosis is a very rare pathology of the hematopoietic system. This pathology mainly in the elderly and in the proportion of men and women alike.

At a young age, women are more likely to have thrombocytosis than men.

Platelets – what is it?

Platelets are blood plates that participate in the coagulation of blood plasma and also support their rheological capabilities. Platelets are synthesized in the bone marrow.

The precursors at the molecular level are megakaryocytes, which disintegrate during synthesis, their nucleus moves away and these molecules become platelets that enter the bloodstream of the human body. Platelets in the blood plasma do not live more than 10 calendar days.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Your average life expectancy is 7 days. If no blood loss occurs during this period, the platelets are destroyed in the liver cells and in the spleen.

The rate of platelet molecules in the blood:

In medicine, elevated levels of platelets in the blood – hypertrombocytosis are classified:

  • Primary type – It is an essential disease thrombocythemia essential.
  • Secondary type – This is a pathology that develops as a complicated form of the disease.

The main type of the disease is the pathology in the production of bone marrow of an excessive platelet count: myeloproliferative disease, a malignancy (thrombocytopenia).

This disease in a complicated form becomes the acute leukemia of the disease.

Essential thrombocythemia is a type of idiopathic pathology in which standard deviations occur in the structure of a platelet cell and the cell can not fulfill its functional obligations.

The etiology of thrombocythemia is not fully understood, but there are suggestions that certain genes mutate in the patient’s body. The research carried out at the genetic – molecular level, revealed that the mutation occurs at an early age.

Therefore, it is not necessary to talk about thrombocytosis as a pathology of the elderly. Essential thrombocytosis is diagnosed in adult patients.

This pathology in the children’s body is practically not found.

A genetic mutation has a hereditary etiology, and genetic changes can also occur under the influence of external stimuli. To select essential thrombocytosis therapy, it is necessary to know exactly in which gene the mutation occurred.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Primary thrombocytosis

The secondary type of thrombocytosis is a complicated form of pathologies in the body.

Such pathologies cause symptomatic thrombocytosis:

  • Malignant neoplasms in the lungs.
  • Stomach cancer
  • Lymphoma of cancer
  • Malignant tumors in the ovaries.
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Infectious pathology in the organs.
  • After surgery for pathology with large-scale tissue necrosis.
  • Fractures in the bones
  • Surgical removal of the organ – spleen
  • Frequent bleeding
  • Hemorrhagic vasculitis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Colagenosis
  • Pharmacological therapy with glucocorticosteroids.

The secondary type of thrombocytosis is a hyperproduction of blood cells, which has a structure that functions normally. No deviations are observed in the functioning of these Taurus.

Among the infectious diseases, platelets are most frequently:

  • Meningococcus
  • Staphylococcus
  • Streptococcus
  • Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
  • Virus
  • The mushrooms

With prolonged inflammation in the body there is a pathology, thrombocytosis and, in addition, rarely in parallel with thrombocytosis, leukocytosis develops. This phenomenon is not typical of the primary type of pathology, but it is a hallmark of secondary reactive thrombocytosis.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Manifestation of thrombocythemia: RIGHT: the release of an excess of platelets in the blood in any form of thrombocytosis, LEFT – the norm.

The development of pathology in the infant body.

Primary thrombocytosis is a very rare disease in children’s bodies. It can be developed on the basis of leukemia or leukemia.

The secondary type is a disease that occurs more frequently in children than in an adult organism.

Iron deficiency anemia, in which there is an increase in the synthesis of red blood cells (platelets).

In addition to anemia, these pathologies of a child’s body can cause reactive thrombocytosis:

  • Aspleniya – a disease in which the cells of the spleen atrophy
  • Osteomyelitis – an inflammatory process in the bone marrow
  • Pneumonia – inflammation of the lungs
  • Viral hepatitis of nature.
  • Flu
  • Encephalitis

In a child, thrombocytosis responds well to therapy if, with a timely diagnosis, an accurate etiology has been established and a diagnosis made.

Symptoms of thrombocytosis

Thrombocytosis refers to those pathologies of the blood flow system that occur in a latent or asymptomatic form, and that can only be detected by chance at an early stage of development. When a disease manifests as symptomatic, then it is in a careless degree.

Symptoms of secondary reactive thrombocytosis:

  • Weakness of the body
  • Febrile
  • Unreasonable weight loss
  • Bone pain – with thrombocytosis of the primary type
  • Joint pain
  • Pain in the region of the ribs: it comes from an increase in the size of the organs: the liver and the spleen
  • Tachycardia
  • Paleness of the skin.
  • Short of breath
  • Infections that are constantly in the recurrence stage.
  • Thromboembolism
  • Thrombosis of small arteries.
  • Lower extremity pain
  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Disorders in the microcirculation in the cerebral cortex.
  • Neurological pathology
  • Physiological abortion
  • Hemorrhagic syndrome
Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Tachycardia

What is dangerous thrombocytosis?

Thrombosis and thromboembolism are the main danger of thrombocytosis. An excess of platelets causes an increase in blood coagulation, as well as the formation of blood clots in the arteries and venous vessels.

The arteries suffer from blood clots much more often than the veins.

The complications of thrombosis can be myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and cerebrovascular accidents: cerebral and ischemic stroke. Thrombocytosis can develop pulmonary embolism.

Erythromelalgia is a characteristic feature of thrombocytosis, which is expressed in painful and burning sensations in the lower extremities. Most of these pains suffer from the feet.

Increased pain occurs when the legs are exposed to heat, and the pain from physical strain on the legs increases. In the advanced form of the disease the darkening of the skin on the legs occurs.

The thrombosis of vessels with a small diameter leads to ischemia of the soft tissues at the tips of the toes, which are accompanied by intense pain, coldness of the lower extremities and dry skin.

Cerebral thrombocytosis leads to neurological pathologies:

  • Mental retardation
  • Memory loss
  • Head spinning
  • Lesions in the optic nerve.

Thrombocytosis in oncology

Thrombocytosis in malignant cancer tumors causes bleeding, metastases occur in the cells of the bone marrow. For large tumors in the organs, the platelet index is not high and does not exceed 1000 thousand U / μl.

Causes of thrombocytosis that is transient in neoplasms:

  • Loss of blood
  • Acute infection
  • Reaction of the bloodstream system to take drugs of group B (12) and folic acid in the treatment of anemia
  • Taking adrenaline, miconazole.

Etiology of the resistant type of thrombocytosis in oncology:

  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Thrombocythemia
  • Myeloproliferative diseases
  • Metastasis
  • Chronic inflamation

In most cases, with cancer, the platelet index decreases and thrombocytopenia develops.

Diagnostic test

To establish the diagnosis of thrombocytosis, the first thing the doctor does is to collect an anamnesis. It is especially important to find out what diseases the patient has suffered, since thrombocytosis can be a consequence of the pathologies suffered.

For a more accurate review of the body, it is necessary to pass some tests and undergo an instrumental examination:

  • Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

    General analysis: identification of the platelet index in the blood test.

  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • Hepatic ultrasound
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.
  • Biochemical analysis

The reactive type of thrombocytosis does not have a violation in the platelets, so no specific pharmacological treatment is provided for this type of thrombocytosis. The essential type of thrombocytosis should be treated with therapeutic methods.

Indications in the treatment of the disease:

  • Preventive measures of thrombosis.
  • Cytoreductive drug therapy
  • Directed treatment
  • Treatment of a complicated form of thrombocytosis.

The main direction in the treatment of thrombocytosis is the use of antiplatelet agents. Non-steroidal antiplatelet agents that have an anti-inflammatory effect are prescribed, this is acetylsalicylic acid.

There are medications that are based on this acid, but have fewer side effects.

The daily dose of aspirin is 40.0 milligrams to 325.0 milligrams, depending on the development of the pathology. The dose of less than 40.0 milligrams does not have pharmacological and prophylactic treatment.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Aspirin is not recommended for prophylactic purposes. Taking the medication of more than 40.0 milligrams for prophylaxis can cause duodenal ulcer with subsequent bleeding of the internal organs.

For prophylaxis and therapy, it is necessary to take antiaggregants of a less aggressive action on the stomach: this is the drug clopidogrel, as well as ticlopidine.

Cytoreductive therapy method

This technique is fundamental in the treatment of bone marrow pathology, in which there is an increased production of platelets.

The main goal of cytoreductive therapy is to reduce the production of platelets by the bone marrow.

Chemotherapy drugs have the properties to restrict progress in the development of the pathology, but their use is limited, as they have a highly toxic negative effect on the body. Chemotherapeutic drugs inhibit the development and increase of tumor cells, which contributes to the normalization of blood composition indicators.

The treatment regimen with chemotherapy is strictly for individual use.

Preparations for use in the cytoreductive treatment of thrombocytosis:

  • Hydroxyurea – Hydrea drug
  • Chemical agent – mercaptopurine
  • Medication – Cytarabine.
Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Hydrea (hydroxyurea)

The most effective drug for all clinical indications, in use in the cytoreductive technique, is the drug Hydrea (hydroxyurea).

Also in this method, treatment with alpha-interferon is applied. This group of drugs showed an effect on therapy in more than 80% of patients.

Alpha – interferons have side effects in the body:

  • Anemia
  • Leukopenia
  • Febrile
  • Condition of depression
  • Violations in the functionality of the liver.

Intolerance to the components of medications reduces the effectiveness of treatment in many patients. The effect of drugs – only during the period of interferon use.

The use of third-generation phosphodiesterase inhibitors in therapy is called anagrelide. This medication can affect the bone marrow and reduce its ability to maximize platelet production.

This medicine is used to treat thrombocytosis, when platelets in a microliter of biological fluid do not exceed an index of 600 thousand.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Mercaptopurine

Target technique in therapy.

The targeted technique in therapy is currently the most effective method to treat neoplastic diseases, which, by its mechanism of action, is capable at the molecular level of suspending the growth of malignant neoplasms in the bloodstream and in internal organs.

Preparations with directed methods directed to the neoplasia, which gives a positive effect in the treatment of tumoral pathologies and thrombocytosis.

The drug, which is used in the targeted method – Ruksolitinib. This is the only medication that is approved for this therapy.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Ruksolitinib

Treatment of complicated thrombocytosis.

The treatment of complicated thrombocytosis and the prevention of complications are necessary measures to cure the pathology of thrombocytosis.

The treatment of thromboembolism, as well as thrombosis, is:

  • Antiplatelet therapy – Aspirin
  • Anticoagulants – Heparin
  • With thrombosis of the aorta and large arteries: vascular stent placement
  • When the coronary arteries and vessels are clogged with a large diameter bypass technique.

Complicated form of thrombocytosis, which manifests in myelofibrosis.

In the treatment of this pathology, drugs of the glucocorticoid group were used. Immunomodulatory agents will not only help in the treatment of myelofibrosis, but will also increase immunity.

Complications of thrombocytosis with rapidly developing anemia. Progressive anemia is the main sign that thrombocytosis has taken a complicated form.

Treatment of complicated pathology in anemia:

  • Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

    Preparations that contain iron ions.

  • Folic acid medications
  • B12 vitamin
  • Group funds – erythropoietin
  • Ascorbic acid – Vitamin C
  • Etamzilat – with frequent bleeding.

Complications of thrombocytosis are infectious, treated with anti-inflammatory medications, and antibacterial medications are used for which Gram-positive and Gram-negative molecules are sensitive.

The selection of drugs in the treatment of complicated thrombocytosis is carried out individually, taking into account the age of the patient and the type of complications of the pathology.

At an early age, it is preferable to use interferon therapy, as well as medication, anagrelide.

At a later age, cytostatics are used.

In the treatment of thrombocytosis, the main thing is to find the root cause of the pathology and direct the therapy to cure it. If thrombocytosis is an idiopathic disease, therapy will depend on the extent of the development of the disease.

With a small deviation from the norm of platelets, it is necessary to change the diet, as well as use homeopathic remedies of traditional medicine.

Popular remedies in the treatment of thrombocytosis

For the treatment of a small increase in blood platelets, or as an additional homeopathic therapy, apply tools based on medicinal plants.

In homeopathy of thrombocytosis, plants and independent collections are used, which reduce the platelet index.

Recipes of home medicine:

Mulberry Root – Wash well and chop finely. 200 grams of roots pour 3000 ml of boiling water and put on intense fire.

After boiling, reduce the heat to 2/3 and cook the broth for 15-20 minutes.

Let it rest and cool. After filtration, take 200 milliliters for 5 calendar days.

After that, three days of rest and repeat the reception. Therapeutic course 24 calendar days.

Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Tincture of alcohol from horse’s shell. – 50.0 grams of an unripe chestnut peel pour 500.0 milliliters of vodka. Infuse dye for 10 calendar days.

Take three times a day for 40 drops, mixed with 25.0 milliliters of water. The course of therapy means – 21 calendar days.

Herbal tea for therapy – Grass clover, bitter wormwood leaves, dry prairie crown and mountain arnica. All healing herbs are taken in the same proportions.

A spoonful of the collection poured 500.0 milliliters of boiling water into a thermos flask. Stays in 8 – 10 hours.

Take 70.0 milliliters three times a day.

It is possible to take ginger, grapes from wine varieties, lemons, as well as homeopathic remedies, as well as a good effect of the daily consumption of an orange to dilute the blood.

How to lower the platelet index during pregnancy?

With an increase in blood volume, during pregnancy there is usually a decrease in the level of platelets.

The platelet index in pregnant women in the first trimester, when the following changes occur in the body:

  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Toxicosis, which is accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Dehydration of the body with toxicosis.
  • Iron deficiency – anemia.

Reduce a small deviation from the platelet rule with a diet based on products that have a high content of the following substances:

  • Yoda (seafood, as well as persimmon and buckwheat groats)
  • Calcium and magnesium ions (fermented milk products, soy, green vegetables, avocado fruit)
  • Oils – flax seeds, but preferably olive.

In pregnant women, thrombocytosis causes spontaneous abortion, placental abruption and inhibition of fetal development.

Products to reduce blood platelets.

To avoid resorting to pharmacological treatment with a slight increase in platelets, you must follow a diet.

The diet for thrombocytosis includes products that reduce the production of platelets:

  • Fresh vegetables and fruits in season.
  • Ginger
  • Green onion and bulb
  • Acid fruits and berries: cherry, cranberry, red and black currant, wild rose
  • Marine foods rich in iodine and omega 3.
  • Citrus fruits: lemon, orange, tangerines.
  • Tomatoes daily, or in processed form.
Thrombocytosis (thrombocythemia): causes, treatment, in children and adults

Products to reduce blood platelets.

Preventive measures of thrombocytosis.

Preventive measures in the treatment of thrombosis: this is the main specificity in the treatment. The first thing that is done in the treatment of thrombocytosis is to eliminate the risk factors of this pathology, which increase the aggregation of platelet molecules, which are already in excess.

Preventive measures of thrombocytosis:

  • Stop nicotine addiction.
  • Do not consume large amounts of alcohol.
  • Monitor nutrition and avoid foods high in cholesterol.
  • Use the required amount of pure water.
  • Take lipid-lowering medications so that the metabolism of body fat returns to normal.
  • Therapy with antihypertensive drugs.
  • Exercise on the body (but it is forbidden to overload the body)
  • Active lifestyle (move more, active sports, swimming).

At a young age, when a pathology of thrombocytosis is detected and there are no visible clinical manifestations of this pathology (absence of thrombosis, pain and discomfort), the prognosis is favorable when the doctor is systematically controlled and preventive measures are taken.

With proper nutrition during the treatment, you can do without the use of aggressive chemical drugs.

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