Thromboembolism is a pathological process in which there is an obstruction in a vessel that prevents the blood from circulating freely.
This process is divided into two parts:
- Formation of blood clots
- Separating a fragment of a thrombus called an embolus. It is transported with blood to various parts of the body.
The structure of the plunger can be based not only on a blood clot, but also on adipose tissue, gas, pus and a foreign body that has entered the body from the external environment.
The arterial thrombosis, the embolism has certain differences.
Thrombosis is the superposition of light in the vessel with a thrombus due to the development of pathology in the vascular wall.
Embolism – the superposition of the light of the plunger.
People who have a tendency to thrombosis, it is important to know why there are blood clots, what is: thromboembolism, how dangerous it is, what symptoms are accompanied, how to treat and how to prevent its development.
Causes of thromboembolism.
Thromboembolic syndrome does not apply to individual diseases and is a consequence of the development of other diseases.
- Deep venous thrombosis. The most common cause of development (70-90% of cases of thromboembolism developed under the influence of this pathology). During thrombosis, blood clots form on the walls of the veins that, when detached, can close the vessel lumen.
Thrombosis in the inferior vena cava.The one that most often causes the development of pulmonary thromboembolism: a disease in which there is a high probability of death. The consequences of venous thrombosis are extremely dangerous, so the treatment of this disease should begin as soon as possible.
- Thrombophilia When this disease is observed, predisposition to the occurrence of thrombosis associated with pathological coagulation disorders.
- Heart and vascular diseases, Contributing to the formation of blood clots in the vessels. These include cardiomyopathy, endocarditis, myocarditis, ischemia.
- Antiphospholipid syndrome. An autoimmune disease in which the body produces antibodies against phospholipids, which leads to the development of hypertension and thrombosis.
- Sepsis In septic lesions, coagulation disorders develop, which increase the risk of thromboembolism.
- Oncological diseases Four to six times increases the probability of thrombosis, embolism.
There are also other reasons that increase the likelihood of blood clots and thromboembolism:
- Prolonged use of medications that increase blood density and blood clotting
- Prolonged immobility (paralysis, prolonged illness requiring bed rest)
- Excessive use of diuretic medications.
- Varicose veins
- Metabolic problems (diabetes, overweight).
- Surgical interventions and medical procedures (venous catheterization).
- Heart failure
- The pregnancy
- Fractures of bones, especially large ones (femur)
- Stroke and heart attack
- Extensive burns
- Traumatic injuries of the spinal cord.
- Bad habits
- Senile changes.
Women are more likely to develop this disease than men.
Types of thromboembolism
There are several types of thromboembolism according to the affected vessel:
- Thromboembolic disease of cerebral vessels
- Pulmonary artery disease
- Vessels in the extremities
- Renal artery
- Mesenteric arteries.
There are also rarer types of this disease: thrombosis and embolism of the vessels of the spinal cord, the spleen.
Thromboembolic disease of cerebral vessels
The most common type of thromboembolic syndrome usually occurs in old age under the influence of high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and the disease that develops due to blockage is called ischemic stroke.
The plunger separates and obstructs the vessel during sleep or immediately afterwards. The symptoms are absent or do not appear intensively.
Conscience is saved, but the following disorders appear:
- Confusion, difficulty during the thought process and trying to remember people and dates.
- Intense drowsiness
- Reduced sensitivity to external stimuli, lethargy, poor perception of verbal information.
The signs of focal lesions do not appear for some time (the first symptoms appear after a few hours or days), and their intensity and characteristics depend on the affected cerebral vessels and the general state of the blood flow. Paralysis, vision problems, speech, hearing, coordination and facial asymmetry may occur.
If you suspect a stroke, ask the victim to smile (the smile will be asymmetric), say the name or say a simple phrase (it will slow down, as if it were intoxicated), raise your arms (they will be located at different heights) and take out the language (will be asymmetric, will not be centered).
Pulmonary artery disease
Blood clots in the pulmonary arteries are rarely formed, usually a pulmonary embolism develops under the influence of thromboembolism, which is transported by the blood.
The highest percentage of deaths in pulmonary embolism, which occurred when a vessel was blocked, with a floating blood clot that moves into the lumen of the artery or is attached to the wall by an edge. During coughing, sneezing, physical activity, the blood clot separates, leading to the development of thromboembolic syndrome as fast as light.
The symptomatology is acute: consciousness is altered, breathing is difficult, hypoxia is produced.
If a thromboembolus has occluded small vascular branches, the disease develops gradually, these symptoms appear:
- The pain similar to angina pectoris is distinguished by the fact that the pain is not felt in the scapula and in the left arm.
- Sputum with cough with blood.
- Low pressure
- Short and shallow breathing.
- Fast and uneven heartbeat.
Thromboembolic disease of the extremities.
The disease usually affects the arteries of the lower extremities. The intensity of the symptoms depends on the location of the lesion and the depth of the circulatory disorder.
There are three degrees of severity of altered blood flow to the legs.