The transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a neurology: according to the international classification of diseases of the tenth revision, ICD-10 is a transient (temporary) acute dysfunction of the central nervous system and a deformation of blood flow in certain areas of the medulla spinal and brain or the inner lining of the eye.
This condition goes along with the neurological symptoms. The attack manifests itself for 24 hours, which is a critical time for it., after which all the symptoms disappear completely (this creates an additional difficulty for the doctor to determine the diagnosis).
If the symptoms of an ischemic attack continue after a day, cerebral insufficiency is considered an acute stroke.
Because it is important to carry out a competent prevention, warning the aggravation of the manifestations of transient ischemic attack, instead of being content with a long recovery.
What is a transient ischemic attack?
In most cases, the pathology pursues people after 45 years (more often after 65). The transient ischemic attack of stroke is distinguished by short-term development and recovery of the first.
Experts warn that we must be more careful with people who have TIA, because he, the harbinger of a stroke.
The trans trans ischemic attack is due to local abnormalities.. Cerebral symptoms, such as dizziness, nausea, vomiting, are manifestations of acute encephalopathic hypertension when blood pressure increases.
According to the Institute of Neurology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Russia, almost 50% of those who suffered a transient heart attack have an increase in blood pressure. And these pathologies aggravate each other.
Doctors believe that transient ischemic attacks are a warning sign of the onset of an acute ischemic stroke.
Therefore, as medical practice shows, one must be very careful in the treatment of a microstroke.
For this purpose, an improved therapy of disaggregation, vascular, neurometabolic and symptomatic is carried out to eliminate the serious consequences.
International statistical classification ICD-10
The ischemic attack of transaction has no pronounced signs, which are treated by a doctor. Determining independently the development of the pathology is not possible and, therefore, determine the number of attacks of this type..
Epidemiologists suggest that among Europeans, the disease occurs in 5 out of 10 thousand people.
The incidence of the disease in people over 45 years is only 0.4%, and also prevails in men 65 to 70 years and in women 75 to 80 years.
For 5 years before a stroke manifests, half of the patients experience an ischemic attack.
According to the ICD-10 classification, said TIAs and related syndromes (G-45) are distinguished.
Syndrome of the vertebrobasilar arterial system (G45.0), When the skin fades and becomes covered with perspiration, the eyeballs begin to move in a horizontal direction, swing from side to side and it becomes impossible to touch the tip of the nose with the index finger.
Temporary superposition due to low blood supply to the carotid artery (hemispherical) (G45.1) – For a few seconds, in the direction of the location of the attack, the eye becomes blind, and from the opposite side it becomes numb, loses sensitivity or is covered with cramps in the limb, there is a temporary alteration of the vocal apparatus, drowsiness, weakness, Fainting.
Multiple bilateral symptoms of cerebral arteries (G45.2): short-term alterations in speech, decreased sensibility and motor function in the extremities, together with temporary loss of vision on the opposite side of the TIA and seizures.
Transient blindness – amaurosisfugax (G45.3).
Transient global amnesia – Transient memory disorder with a sudden loss of memory abilities (G45.4).
Another TIA and transient manifestations with attacks (G45.8).
If there is TIA spasm, but the reasons for this are not clarified and the diagnosis is indicated by the code G45.
This is a classification of a transient ischemic attack, depending on the area in which a blood clot forms.
Depending on the vascular basin, where ischemia manifests, transient ischemic attacks occur in the carotid and vertebrobasilar basins (BVB).
Carotid and vertebro-basilar pool
Depending on the area affected, determine the location of the brain, which receives less blood supply.
And here the neurologists divide the symptoms into two types:
- general – nausea, pain and weakness, dizziness and lack of coordination, loss of consciousness in the short term
- Local – Individual, depends on the affected area.
According to local manifestations, the area affected by the thrombus is determined.
The TIA in VVB is the most frequent occurrence of short-term ischemia (it occurs in 70 cases out of every 100).
- Vestibular ataxia (imbalance of stability and coordination)
- Noises and spasms in the head.
- Vomiting, nausea
- Short-term amnesia
- Visual dysfunction
- Sensory disorders
- Increased blood pressure
- Very seldom – the beginning of dysarthria.
TIA in the carotid pool is produced:
- With visual impairment, monocular blindness (in the right or left eye) and passes as the attack disappears (lasts a few seconds)
- With paroxysmal sensory and vestibular disorders, it is impossible to control the body due to loss of balance
- Vascular visual disorders: occur in the form of reduced sensitivity or complete paralysis of one side of the body, and warn about a microstroke in this area
- With convulsive syndromes, during which cramps in the extremities, without loss of consciousness, bend and flex independently the arms and legs.
The TIA in the local part of the blood flow of the retinal, ciliary or orbital artery is prone to stereotyped repetition and is accompanied by:
- Transient blindness– Suddenly, the visual acuity falls, blurry and distorted colors appear, a veil appears in one eye.
- Hemianesthesia, Decreased muscle tone, the appearance of seizures, paralysis, which reports on the transient ischemic attack of the carotid arteries.
- Global transit amnesia – It happens after a strong nervous shock or pain. There is a short-term amnesia of new information in the presence of very old people, with a distracted attitude, a tendency to repeat, vestibular ataxia. TGA lasts up to half an hour, after which the memories are completely restored. Similar TGA attacks can be repeated in a few years. A patient in a coma may experience a symptom of the candle, which is so called because of the external similarity of inflation during cheek breathing on the opposite side of the paralytic.
The difficulty in determining the diagnosis is that the attack symptoms are of short duration and the neuropathologist is obliged to diagnose the TIA only from the words of the patient., Which will depend on the pathological area of cerebral blood flow.
Despite the reversibility of symptoms, it should be remembered that at the time of the appearance of spasms, the arteries that transport oxygen and vital substances stop the processes.
The energy is not produced, and the cells suffer from lack of oxygen (temporary hypoxia is observed).
Symptoms in humans with cerebral hypoxia.
The damage to the body of the attack will depend on the area of the affected area, but even small local attacks will cause considerable damage to health.
Aortic Brainstorming Signs
The appearance of pathological processes in the blood circulation in the aortic area before the bifurcation of the carotid and the vertebral vessels is marked by the symptoms:
- Photopsia, diplopia.
- Noise in the head
- Vestibular ataxia
- Drowsiness and decreased physical activity.
The disorder can occur with congenital heart disease.
And if there is an increase in blood pressure, then there is:
- Vestibular ataxia
- Weakness in the extremities
- Nausea and vomiting.
The symptoms of an attack become more pronounced if the patient begins to change the position of the head and increases the risk of TIA (Table 1).