Chickenpox is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. This is due to the fact that chickenpox is a very contagious disease, the rate of infection (infectiousness) is 90-95%.
This means that 90% of people who come in contact with a patient with chickenpox will become infected if they have not had this infection before.
How is chickenpox spread?
Chickenpox is an anthroponotic disease, that is, it is transmitted from person to person.
Source of infection It’s just a person with chicken pox or shingles.
Agent that causes chickenpox Smallpox is a virus of the herpes virus family. This is a great DNA virus.
It infects the nuclei of the cells, it can be located in human cells for a long time as a latent (hidden) infection. The virus is resistant to low temperatures, sensitive to UV rays (ultraviolet radiation).
Although the virus is very contagious, it is unstable in the external environment and dies quickly.
A person becomes contagious a few days before the appearance of the first rash, is contagious throughout the period of the rash and another 5 days after the appearance of the last elements of chicken pox.
The virus is found in large quantities in the vesicles, but in the stage of the scabs is no longer detected.
The main aerial transmission, The transmission mechanism is aerogenic (by air). This means that the infection can occur even during a simple conversation with a varicella patient.
Another mode of transmission is intrauterine. If a woman gets chickenpox a few days before giving birth, your baby will have this infection, which will lead to the development of congenital chickenpox in a newborn.
Gateway to the virus. It is the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, where the virus multiplies and accumulates. After that, it enters the bloodstream and, with a flow of blood, reaches the skin cells and mucous membranes, in which it continues to multiply, causing dystrophic changes, which are manifested by the appearance of a characteristic eruption.
Due to the fact that the virus spreads very quickly in the air and the disease is transmitted by droplets in the air and gets its name: chicken pox.
To reduce the risk of infecting others, a sick child should be isolated from the first days of the illness. The contact is quarantined during the incubation period (for 23 days).
The quarantine is removed from the sick child 5 days after the last elements of the eruption have appeared. Since the patient does not become dangerous to others.
The effectiveness of these quarantine measures is questionable, since the patient becomes infectious a few days before the eruption appears (and when the eruption does not appear exactly) and during this time the virus passes to others, which also become infectious. And although the disease itself does not manifest, and can last up to 23 days, children communicate freely with their peers and with others.
Therefore, varicella infection, especially in groups of children, occurs with lightning speed and in a short period of time 90% of children become infected.