This article is the third “in the block” of a very important topic “Neuro-psychological development of children in the first year of life”. We have already discussed how the development of motor skills, the motility of your baby, the visual sphere takes place.
Now is the time to move on to hearing and speech development (the so-called pre-speech period).
The development of hearing.
You have noticed that the newborn is frightened by the harsh sounds, shudders, closes his eyes, sometimes wrinkles his forehead and screams.
At the beginning of the second month of life, the baby shows a faint reaction. A newborn can look in the face of the speaker, can hear the sounds of a rattle or the sound of a speech.
- At the age of three months, your baby listens carefully to different sounds. Your baby changes behavior, depending on the speaker’s intonation and the strength of the sound.
- The baby has a search movement of the sound source.
- The baby gradually learns to distinguish the mother’s voice from other voices.
- At the age of six months, the baby can hear high frequency sounds (whistle, bell), colloquial sounds and quiet sounds (whisper)
- Turn your head in the direction of sound.
- Learn to link auditory and visual impressions.
- At the age of six months, your baby’s walk becomes more diverse. A lot of new sounds and intonations appear in the game, some consonant sounds are added. In other words, babbling appears
- Auditory memory is developed, the vocabulary of sounds is restored.
- After six months, the dialogue between a significant adult and a baby plays an important role. When communicating, the child uses not only the talk and the babbling, the baby complements his “promise” with gestures and facial expressions!
- The complete absence or partial presence of flaccid arches, late onset of arches (after 4-5 months).
- There is no rotation of the head in the direction of the voice source.
- The child does not show a reaction to the whisper of speech.
- The child does not react to the squeaker toy.
- Unusual voice reactions: uniform, noise sounds without intonation.
If you see such signs in your baby, you should immediately contact a specialist.
The absence or underdevelopment of at least one link in this complex chain of development will lead to interruptions or delays in development in other areas.
Eight to ten months, the baby understands the meaning of a single word, responds to his name, freezes when he says “no”, “wait”. Able to perform individual actions (“give”, “ladies”).
At the age of nine to ten months, the question “where” can navigate. The child finds it with his eyes or shows it with a pen.
In the period from seven to nine months, the babbling is varied, active. Some children have two words in their vocabulary (these are words that consist of two identical syllables: mom, dad, slime).
But, it must be taken into account that most of the time these words do not have an adequate meaning. A are a transition to specific words.
Alarms for nine months:
If the baby is nine months old …
- The baby does not have a reaction to his name. It does not stop when its name is.
- The baby does not turn his head towards the source (speaking or whispering).
- Lack of babbling, or is slow and inactive.
- The child does not perform simple actions at the request of an adult (“give”, “I can not”).
Now let’s move on to the development of speech.. In the period of up to one year, your baby is in the pre-verbal period.
A kind of preparatory stage.
The development of speech is slightly different from what was described above. This function is associated with knowledge and exploration of the surrounding world.
Based on the development of the motor activity, the visual and auditory reactions, the mother – baby emotional dialogue, the speech activity of your baby is formed.
You already know that a newborn baby communicates with the world with the help of crying, crying, facial expressions and body postures. With a cry, the baby tells him he wants to eat, that he is cold or in pain.
The better adults understand these signals, the more productive their relationship will be.
It is curious that the sucking reflex (when the baby produces active sucking movements) is a prerequisite for future speech development!
A little later, a “revitalization complex” (a type of emotional and expressive behavior) appears. The baby already knows how to pronounce guttural sounds, smiles, actively moves the arms and legs.
At the age of three months, the baby uses “walking and laughing” as “communication.” The child does not understand the meaning of the words, but responds perfectly to different intonations (the tender and cheerful intonation causes laughter).
During the period of four to five months, gnawing is developing rapidly. At this age, the baby is able to pronounce melodious vowels (“aaaa”, “yyy”). Little by little, they move to “ay-ay-ay” or “wah-wow”.
Therefore, the baby attracts the attention of an adult or tries to establish contact with him.
At the age of five to six months there is babbling. The child says the first syllables “ma-ma”, “ba-ba”, “wa-va”.
Speech begins to acquire a cognitive function.
After six months, the child learns the pointing gesture. For example, when an adult says “av-av” and asks “where?”, The baby turns in the direction of the object and shows with a finger.
Gradual expansion of the speech comprehension experience!
In the period from nine months to a year, he begins to master the skills of imitation of speech. The child seeks to pronounce new syllables with an adult.
Keep in mind that the baby can use the same syllable to indicate familiar situations and things. These first “words” have a broad conceptual spectrum.
During this period, an important moment comes in the development of speech and thought. The child is able to respond to prohibitions, performs simple actions on request.
At the end of the first year, a child’s passive dictionary is much more than an active one. But the baby has a great desire to communicate with you in any way he can.
This is important for the development of speech function.
There are many factors in which speech proficiency depends on the first year. These include: the work of the organs of the ear, the development of the speech zones in the cortex of the large hemispheres, the state of the articulation apparatus, the emotional state of the baby, the satisfaction of their needs to explore the world, the Speech environment activity are also important.
Let’s see the alarms by age:
During three months:
- Do not flinch at a sharp and unexpected sound.
- It does not make sounds.
- There is no reaction to the face or the voice of an adult.
For six months:
- Do not turn your head or turn on the sound.
- It does not emit sounds.
- Using sounds and facial expressions does not motivate you to communicate.
For nine months:
- Do not pull the handle on an adult.
- There is no reaction to your name.
- Do not repeat the sounds behind you.
- When playing independently, he does not “comment” it with sounds.
For twelve months:
- Without movement of the hand pointing.
- Do not imitate your gestures.
- It does not apply gestures to itself.
- Does not include requests for the implementation of individual actions (“give”).
- There is no reaction to hide-and-seek games.
- It does not give an adult a toy to play together.