Everyone knows that the disease is easier to prevent than to cure is related to rickets a hundred percent. Preventive measures help not only to prevent the development of serious bone changes, but, with the right approach, allow us to forget this disease forever.
Preventive measures for the prevention of rickets consist of several components:
Rational treatment of the child.
Regular walks in the fresh air.
Prophylactic Vitamin D
It must be taken into account that these preventive measures should be started immediately after the birth of the baby (postnatal prevention). By the way, the prevention of rickets must start even before the birth of the child, but later.
The organization of the proper nutrition of the child.
The best and indispensable for the child the first two years of life is breast milk.
If the baby is breastfed, it is necessary to pay attention to the nutrition of the nursing mother. The diet of a nursing mother should be varied and contain enough protein (including animal origin), fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and trace elements.
Lactating women are advised to continue taking multivitamins, as long as the child is not allergic to them.
If breastfeeding is not possible, then modern formulas of adapted milk to feed the baby are recommended.
Also, consider the timely introduction of complementary foods, especially those that contain animal proteins.
Rational mode and physical development.
For a child to grow up healthy, it is necessary to pay attention to their physical development.
The child must be suitable for the old motor mode. Ensure that in babies massage and gymnastics.
The massage and the gymnast should be done regularly, systematically, with a gradual increase of the load.
Very important are the walks in the fresh air, the water procedures, the air and sun baths, the hardening.
Specific prevention of rickets.
In full-term babies, specific prophylaxis of rickets begins at three weeks of age, in premature babies before (10 to 14 days of age). For prophylaxis, use vitamin D at the minimum doses.
A prophylactic dose of vitamin D is 400 IU per day.
Specific prophylaxis is carried out in the autumn-winter-spring periods, with a break of months of intense sunstroke. This must take into account the risk factors for the development of the disease, as well as the child’s living conditions. In those regions where even in summer sunlight is not enough (sunlight), it is recommended to give children a prophylactic dose of vitamin D.
Prophylactic vitamin D is indicated for children in the first two years of life (2-2.5 years).
It must be taken into account that if a child receives an adapted milk formula containing vitamin D, his total dose should not exceed 400 IU per day.
As a general rule, full-term bottle-fed babies (adapted milk formulas) hardly need an additional intake of vitamin D.
As for premature babies, here the problem is solved individually.
When it is premature at 1 degree, vitamin D is prescribed at a dose of 500 to 1000 IU, as recommended by the doctor. With grade 2-3 prematurity, prophylactic doses can reach up to 2,000 IU daily during the first year of life, followed by a transition to lower doses (500-1000 MU) in the second year of life.
The optimal solution for the prevention of rickets is an aqueous solution of vitamin D3.
There are contraindications for specific prophylaxis: idiopathic calciuria, hypophosphatasia, organic damage to the central nervous system with symptoms of microcephaly and / or craniostenosis.
For children whose small spring has a small size, specific prevention takes 3 to 4 months to live.
You should also remember about children at risk of developing rickets. It is recommended that these children prescribe vitamin D in a dose of 1000 IU daily during the fall-winter-spring period during the first 2 years of life.
The risk group includes:
- Premature babies, low birth weight babies and babies with signs of morphofunctional immaturity. Children of twins or repeated births with small intervals between them.
- Children with malabsorption syndrome, celiac disease, gastrointestinal form of food allergy, with enteropathy.
- With seizures and receiving anticonvulsants.
- Children with reduced motor activity (with paralysis, paralysis).
- He is usually ill with ARF, as well as chronic pathology of the liver and biliary tract.
- In the presence of heredity charged in violation of phosphorus-calcium metabolism.
Prenatal prevention of rickets.
Prenatal prophylaxis is the prevention of rickets before birth, during pregnancy.
The expectant mother should observe the daily regimen with enough rest both at night and during the day. It is recommended to be outdoors every day, at least 2 hours a day.
The nutrition of a pregnant woman should include meat, fish, cottage cheese, cheese, milk and dairy products. The food must contain vitamins and microelements.
You can use special dairy drinks, which are designed specifically for pregnant women and nursing mothers.
The prophylactic administration of vitamin D from 28 to 32 weeks of gestation is indicated for pregnant women in the risk group, that is, those with somatic diseases (nephropathy, diabetes, rheumatism, hypertension) and genital diseases. The dose of vitamin D is 1000 IU for 8 weeks, regardless of the time of year.
For the purposes of prophylaxis for healthy pregnant women, vitamin D is prescribed from 32 weeks for 8 weeks at a dose of 200-400 IU per day and only in the winter-spring period.
In conclusion, I would like to point out that the implementation of prenatal rickets prevention does not prevent the implementation of measures to prevent rickets in a child after birth.