Umbilical hernia: a pathology that shows a round or oval shaped protuberance in the region of the umbilical ring, which increases with crying or anxiety of the child.
To make it clearer by what looks like an umbilical hernia, let’s look a bit at the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the umbilical region of the fetus and the newborn.
The navels of the baby are formed at the site of the opening of the umbilical ring through which the umbilical cord passes. After the umbilical cord is ligated, during the first 5 days the umbilical cord remains dry and falls, and during the first month of life the umbilical cord vessels are completely closed.
The area of the umbilical ring is tight, scarred and covered with a fold of skin.
In that case, if the umbilical ring is not completely closed (as seen in some newborns), the fragments of the abdominal organs, such as the greater omentum, the peritoneum, and the intestinal loops, may protrude through the skin through of its opening (weak point). This is the umbilical hernia.
Symptoms of umbilical hernia.
With small sizes, a hernia can appear only during crying, with anxiety or tension. With a large hernia, in the area of the navel, the swelling is constantly visible, which increases during crying.
Predisposing factors for the development of umbilical hernia.
This is all that leads to weakness of the rectus abdominus and abdominal muscles. This is prematurity and low birth weight (low weight babies), since the congenital weakness of the connective tissue and muscles is characteristic of this category of children.
In older children, frequent constipation, flatulence and prolonged crying may cause navel hernia.
Some authors point to a hereditary factor: the risk of developing a hernia in a baby increases if observed in one of the parents.
The pathology of pregnancy can also cause a hernia. Several infectious diseases, harmful chemicals, environmental factors can affect the placement and development of the connective tissue and the muscles of the fetus.
Which can lead to a violation of the formation of the umbilical ring structure, and subsequently to the umbilical hernia.
In some cases, umbilical hernia in children may appear for no apparent reason.
Most often, the small hernia (up to 1 cm). Such hernias can pass without special treatment at the age of 3 years, when the abdominal muscles become stronger and fitter.
Even with small hernias, it is necessary to perform the monitoring with a pediatrician or a surgeon, since there is a risk of strangulation of the hernia. Massages and gymnastics should be done regularly to strengthen the muscles.
Umbilical hernia treatment
Here are some general recommendations for the treatment of hernia in newborns and babies:
- It spreads the baby frequently in the womb.
- Make sure your baby has a regular stool, does not allow the appearance of constipation and flatulence.
- Do not let the child get out of debt and cry hysterically.
- Perform firming massage and gymnastics. The basic techniques are not difficult to learn, after which the mother can do massage and gymnastics independently.
Massage technique for umbilical hernia.
Begin the massage with gentle movements in the baby’s abdomen in a clockwise direction (along the intestines). To do this, place the palm on the belly, so that the navel is located in the center of the palm and turn the arm to the right. Another method to strengthen the abdominal muscles is to place the arms on the sides of the child (at the level of the oblique abdominal muscles) and, with gentle movements of movement, move it from the bottom (from the back) to the navel.
A slight tingling around the navel, helps strengthen the muscles (also in the direction of clockwise), touching with the fingertips at the navel, these are the basic techniques. The hands during the massage should be warm.
It is best to massage the abdomen 30-40 minutes before meals or 1.5-2 hours later on a hard, flat surface. Begin to massage after healing the umbilical wound.
To better master the techniques of massage and gymnastics, ask a massage therapist or a nurse to show you, in this case, you will be sure that you are doing everything correctly.
Regarding the reduction of the hernia with a coin and a cast, this method is not currently used, due to the high risk of infection of the umbilical wound. The reduction of the hernia with the subsequent fixation of your adhesive tape must be done by a doctor.
Currently, special hypoallergenic patches are being produced for the treatment of umbilical hernia.
In those cases, if the size of the hernia is more than 2 cm, an increase in its size is observed and it does not disappear by itself at the age of 5 years, a surgical operation is indicated.
A hernia in a baby may require emergency care. – In cases where the hernia sac becomes painful, dense, it does not restart. These symptoms may indicate a clamping of the umbilical hernia. This is a very dangerous condition, since part of the intestine gets stuck in the umbilical ring, which can lead to intestinal obstruction and necrosis of part of the intestine.
By infringing emergency surgery.
Many parents try to try all methods to help their baby. So, quite popular is umbilical hernia in babies. Well, well, if they recommend a good healer and you really think it will help, then why not talk about the umbilical hernia in a baby?
Just do not forget the traditional methods of treatment. And to focus on strengthening the abdominal muscles and preventing diseases that contribute to the progression of the hernia (constipation, flatulence, rickets and others).
Inguinal hernia in children.
In addition to umbilical hernia, children often also have inguinal hernias. Inguinal hernia is rarely diagnosed in babies.
However, it must be taken into account that in premature babies the risk of developing this pathology is much greater. An inguinal hernia in a baby is a protuberance in the inguinal region.
This pathology is associated more often with the non-closure of the vaginal process of the peritoneum. In children, inguinal hernia is more common, since there is a cord that accompanies the testicles and the spermatic cord on the way to the scrotum in the prenatal period, it must be removed (too large).
If this does not happen, then this channel becomes a weak point and part of the omentum, the intestinal loops, can be bulked into the free space. In girls, the pathology is less common, but in addition to the intestinal loops and the omentum, the fallopian tubes can get the fallopian tube with the ovary (this is very dangerous).
How is the inguinal hernia?
A formation similar to a tumor appears in the groin area, which becomes more noticeable when the child is anxious and disappears in a state of calm. In children, on the side of the hernia, the middle of the scrotum may be enlarged.
Girls can have swelling of the lips.
When pressed gently on the protrusion, it is easily placed in the abdominal cavity, usually with a thud (if the contents are intestinal loops).
Unilateral inguinal hernia is more common.
If the baby has a protruding hernia in the groin (regardless of the child’s age), you should immediately contact the pediatric surgeon. You should know that inguinal hernias are not passed alone, they are treated only with surgery.
Inguinal hernia violation
One of the dangerous complications of an inguinal hernia is imprisonment. As a result of the infraction, the content of the hernia sac is compressed with the development of circulatory disorders in this area, which can lead to necrosis (tissue death).
In children, bowel loops deteriorate more often, in girls, an ovary. In the violation of the child the paroxysm, the increasing anxiety is noted. The swelling remains out of an anxiety attack, it is not relieved by pressure.
In the future, swelling increases and redness appears. If the hernia alone does not subside and the child does not receive help, intestinal obstruction, peritonitis and necrosis of the strangulated organs may develop.
The offense may be accompanied by general symptoms: fever, vomiting, refusal to eat, anxiety.
In the case of the infraction in girls, an emergency operation is performed, due to the risk of compression of the ovaries. Since even a brief infraction of the ovaries leads to the death of the ovules, which can later affect the reproductive system.
In the case of incarceration due to hernia in children (when entering the hospital with a small prescription for incarceration), it is possible to use a set of conservative measures designed to relax the muscles, reduce swelling and self-contraction of the hernia.
If there was a replacement and improvement of the condition, then it is recommended to perform a planned surgical intervention.
Treatment of inguinal hernias.
Currently, it is recommended to perform a planned surgical treatment of the inguinal hernia immediately after diagnosis. In young children, the operation is performed after 6 months of life (if there are no signs of an infraction), but the surgeon must observe the child, and the parents are informed about the risk of infraction.